Some Electrifying Undergraduate and Graduate Research
Pat’s research during undergraduate and graduate studies with the School of Meteorology at the University of Oklahoma focused on radar meteorology and lightning/atmospheric electrification.
During his undergraduate studies, Pat was funded through a NASA EPSCoR grant to investigate the effectiveness of the electric field meter (EFM) network around Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL. His research involved examining the false-alarm rate of the EFM network and ways to improve the detection efficiency. This research was used to improve NASA’s Lightning Launch Commit Criteria, which is a set of guidelines NASA uses to determine whether to launch or scrap a launch.
During his graduate studies, Pat was funded by DARPA to research the lightning process using a number of mobile and transportable polarimetric radar platforms. While at two different facilities (International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, FL and Langmuir Laboratory in Soccorro, NM), Pat used these mobile and transportable radar platforms to examine the atmosphere coinciding with artificially-triggered lightning attempts.
Currently, Pat is a Research Associate with the OU Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS) as part of the Severe Weather Applications Technology Transfer Team (SWAT) within the NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) Warning Research Development Division (WRDD). This group is tasked with developing and testing algorithms and techniques to improve short-term probabilistic prediction and nowcasting to assist forecasters with the warning-decision-making process.
As part of an MOU with the NOAA Radar Operations Center (ROC), Pat and the MRMS/Severe Weather Applications Team are investigating Vertically Integrated Liquid (VIL) and Echo Top products to provide recommendations on which products should be available to forecasters within the Open Radar Product Generator (ORPG). These products have tremendous potential not only for diagnosing the severity of storms for the warning-decision-making process, but also for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to provide advanced notice to those in aviation about weather hazards. This group is also investigating and improving the Hail Size Detection Algorithm (HSDA) used by operational forecasters. This enhancement to the Hail Detection Algorithm delineates the hail category into large and giant hail using dual polarization radar information.
Pat and his MRMS/Severe Weather Applications Team are also investigating storm identifying and storm tracking by looking at a large collection of storm cases to develop “truth” datasets. Pat has been investigating manual and automated analyses of storm tracking using several years of Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment (SHAVE) datasets. The automated analysis uses k-means clustering to partition radar observations and uses means to calculate midpoints to compare with the manual analysis.
Research-to-Operations: Hazardous Weather Testbed
The SWAT group is instrumental in leading the Experimental Warning Program (EWP) in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Tested (HWT), a research-to-operations space where the latest and greatest in weather forecasting and warning tools are tested. A number of collaborators and users are invited into this R2O space to test different products, techniques, and algorithms to improve the warning-decision-making process.
Pat works in this R2O space as a project scientist/facilitator on a number of different projects:
HS-PHI Interoffice Collaboration Experiment
Forecasting a Continuum of Environmental Threats (FACETs), a multi-hazard research program, allows for communication of probabilistic hazard information within a modern, flexible, continuously-updating framework. FACETs represents a fundamental change in the way weather information will be disseminated not only to the public and other users, but also within and between operational National Weather Service (NWS) Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs). This paradigm will also impact the way that WFOs work together for the protection of life and property.
The goal of the HS-PHI Interoffice Collaboration Experiment is to test the collaboration tools within Hazard Services (HS) and compare collaboration strategies within this new software to the current system, especially near County Warning Area (CWA) borders where discontinuities and inconsistencies in messaging can occur. During this experiment, archived weather scenarios that targeted these CWA borders were chosen. Pairs of forecasters from different WFOs were stationed in separate rooms to simulate NWS operations, and their operations were observed. Surveys were conducted after each scenario, followed by intra- and inter-office discussions.
This project was created following an NWS-wide field survey regarding inter- and intra-office collaboration in terms of warning operations, relational and policy considerations, and technological considerations.
Our group is also instrumental in leading the Experimental Warning Program (EWP) in the NOAA Hazardous Weather Tested (HWT). We invite a number of collaborators and users into this R2O space to test different products, techniques, and algorithms to improve the warning-decision-making process.
Stop, Collaborate, Listen: A Survey of Inter-/Intra-Office NWS Collaboration and Impacts for FACETs
The National Weather Association (NWA) Annual Meeting went virtual for 2020, so poster presentations were made available on the conference app (Whova) during the duration of the conference, as well as a virtual poster presentation hour (Tuesday, September 15, 2020 4:45-5:45 PM Eastern). To view my e-Poster presentation, watch the YouTube video below!
Coordinated lightning, balloon-borne electric field, and radar observations of triggered lightning flashes in North Florida
2015 • Geophysical Research Letters
Correlated lightning mapping array and radar observations of the initial stages of three sequentially triggered Florida lightning discharges
2013 • Journal of Geophysical Research
Rocket-and-wire triggered lightning in 2012 Tropical Storm Debby in the absence of natural lightning
2013 • Journal of Geophysical Research
- Analysis of surface electric-field contours in relation to cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in air-mass thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center (20th Annual Lightning Detection Conference, Tucson, AZ, 2008)
- Analysis of surface electric-field contours in relation to cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in air-mass thunderstorms at the Kennedy Space Center (AMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, 2008)
- Another look at patterns in the surface electric field in relation to cloud-to-ground lightning in air-mass thunderstorms over Kennedy Space Center: False-alarm rates (AMS Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, 2009)
- The time between first radar echoes and first VHF lightning radiation source locations as an indicator of eventual storm intensity (AMS Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, 2011)
- Specific differential phase observations of multicell convection during natural and triggered lightning strikes at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA 2012)
- Specific differential phase observations of multicell convection during natural and triggered lightning strikes at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (AMS Annual Meeting, Austin, TX 2013)
- Stop, Collaborate, Listen: A Survey of Inter-/Intra-Office NWS Collaboration and Impacts for FACETs (NWA Annual Meeting, Virtual, 2020)
- Stop, Collaborate, and Listen: A Survey and Experimental Analysis of Inter-/Intra-Office NWS Collaboration and Impacts for FACETs (AMS Annual Meeting, Virtual, 2021) (pending)
DARPA Nimbus Program
Nimbus is a fundamental science program focused on obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the lightning process, its associated emissions (such as x-rays), and its ionospheric components to better protect troops, ordnance, and other military assets.
Deep Convective Clouds & Chemistry Experiment (DC3)
The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) field campaign is investigating the impact of deep, midlatitude continental convective clouds, including their dynamical, physical, and lightning processes, on upper tropospheric (UT) composition and chemistry. The campaign is making use of extensively instrumented aircraft platforms and ground-based observations.